Poster Index

Culture, ethnicity and spiritual approaches. New paradigms in suicidology

Clinical and neurocognitive studies of suicidal behavior (17)  |  Clinical phenotyping of suicidal individuals (23)
Culture, ethnicity and spiritual approaches. New paradigms in suicidology (11)  |  Ethical and methodological challenges and solutions in suicide research (5)
Genetic, epigenetic and gene expression contributors to suicide risk (2)  |  Intervention research for prevention of suicidal behavior (30)
Lifespan differential aspects (from infancy to elderly) (7)  |  Miscellany (assisted suicide, minorities, legal aspects, etc.) (9)
Neurobiological underpinnings of suicidal behavior (3)  |  Novel monitoring strategies for detecting changes in risk over time (4)
Psychosocial variables: protective and risk factors. Resilience & vulnerability (38)  |  Testing the effectiveness of prevention strategies (6)




Culture, ethnicity and spiritual approaches. New paradigms in suicidology


(119) PO-119. Mental health service changes, organizational factors, and patient suicide in England 1997 to 2012

Day: 10 | Time: 13:30 | Room: Poster Hall

Topic: Culture, ethnicity and spiritual approaches. New paradigms in suicidology

Authors:Nav Kapur . Centre for Suicide Prevention, University of Manchester, Manchester
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 Introduction:
Research investigating which aspects of mental health service provision are most effective in preventing suicide is relatively sparse.
 Goals:
We examined the association between service changes, organizational factors, and suicide rates in a national sample.
 Methodology:
We did a before-and-after analysis of service delivery data and an ecological analysis of organizational characteristics in relation to suicide rates in mental health providers in England. We also investigated whether the impact of service changes varied according to markers of organizational functioning.
 Results:
Overall, 19,248 individuals who died by suicide within 12 months of contact with mental health services were included (1997-2012). A number of service changes related to ward safety, improved community services, staff training, and implementation of policy and guidance were associated with a lower suicide rate after their introduction (IRRs ranged from 0·71-0·79, p<0·01). Some wider organizational factors (non-medical staff turnover and incident reporting) were also related to suicide rates (Spearman's: 0·34 (p=0·01) and 0.46 (p<0·01) respectively) but others (such as staff sickness and patient satisfaction) were not. Service changes had more impact in organizations which had low rates of staff turnover but high rates of overall event reporting.
 Conclusions:
Aspects of mental health service provision may have an impact on suicide rates in clinical populations but the wider organizational context in which service changes are made are likely to be important too. System-wide change implemented across the patient care pathway could be a key strategy for improving patient safety in mental health care.


(158) PO-158. The timing of general population and patient suicide in England, 1997-2012

Day: 10 | Time: 13:30 | Room: Poster Hall

Topic: Culture, ethnicity and spiritual approaches. New paradigms in suicidology

Authors:Saied Ibrahim . University of Manchester, United Kingdom
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 Introduction:
There have been conflicting findings on temporal variation in suicide risk and few have examined the phenomenon in clinical populations. This study investigated seasonal and other temporal patterns using national data.
 Methodology:
Data on 73,591 general population and 19,318 patient suicide deaths in England between 1997 and 2012 were collected through the National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide examining suicide rates in relation to month of the year, day of the week, and individual days of national or religious significance. We selected several days in the calendar year based on their prominence and impact on social activities, such as Christmas, Easter, New Year?s Eve, New Year?s Day, Valentine?s Day, Mother?s Day and Father?s Day. To identify potential mechanisms we examined the temporal variations in suicide by socio-demographic and clinical subgroups (sex, age, living circumstances, diagnosis).
 Results:
Suicide incidence fell over successive months of the year and there was evidence of an overall spring peak. Monday was associated with the highest suicide rates in the general population, 20% higher than observed for Sunday (IRR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.17-1.23, p < 0.001). The effect was similar in the patient population but appeared to be more pronounced in those aged over 50, or those who lived alone. Suicide risk was significantly lower during Christmas, particularly for women. There was a peak in suicide on New Year?s Day in the general population. Other ?special days? were not associated with a change in suicide incidence.
 Conclusions:
There is substantial seasonal and temporal variation in suicide deaths, and there appears to be some evidence in the clinical as well as the general population in England. Clinical services should be aware of the risk of suicide just after the weekend, especially in people who live alone, and the potential need for closer supervision during this period.


(174) PO-174. Cultural risk factors in young mexican adults.

Day: 09 | Time: 10:30 | Room: Poster Hall

Topic: Culture, ethnicity and spiritual approaches. New paradigms in suicidology

Authors:Teresita Morfín-López . ITESO University, México
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 Introduction:
The Ministry of Health in Mexico estimates that every year about forty thousand suicides attempts occur (1)
Death caused by suicide in Mexico has steadily increased over the last 40 years (2).
In 2013 just under six thousand suicides in Mexico were presented, with the highest number of suicides between 15 and 24 years old (1)
 Goals:
The aim of this study was to identify the semantic structure and cultural knowledge of young adults about suicidal behavior.
 Methodology:
The method used in this study was the cultural consensus, by analyzing data collected through semi -structured young adults, with and without suicide attempt, interviews. They involved 34 people with recent suicide attempt, contacted at the a) Municipal Medical Services in Guadalajara, b) Jalisco Institute of Mental Health, c) Psychiatric Hospital San Juan de Dios. In addition, 33 people participated without a history of attempted suicide.
 Results:
Cultural consensus was observed in both groups, with similar semantic structure and only some small differences. Regarding the causes of the suicide attempt, family conflict was the most important; also sadness had more mentions as feeling before the suicide attempt; the individual?s thoughts were not to live. In relation of what they did, planning suicide was the most mentioned action and about the prevention, psychological counseling had the greatest relevance.
 Conclusions:
The results of this research suggest a shared knowledge about suicide. It can be concluded that showing the relevance found on these socio- cultural factors in suicidal phenomenon in Mexico may be useful to carry out protective measures.
 References:
(1)Mexican Ministry of Health, (2014, 2015)
(2) Borges, G., Orozco, R., Benjet, C., & Medina-Mora, M. E. (2010). Suicide and suicidal behavior in Mexico: retrospective and current situation. Public Health of Mexico, 52 (4), 292-304.
(3 )Romney, K.S. Weller, S.C. y Batchelder, H. (1986). Culture as consensus: a theory of culture and informant accuracy. American anthropologist; 81 (2): 313-338.


(180) PO-180. Theme Analysis of Suicide Prevention Comics in Taiwan

Day: 10 | Time: 13:30 | Room: Poster Hall

Topic: Culture, ethnicity and spiritual approaches. New paradigms in suicidology

Authors:Ya-hsing Yeh . John Tung Foundation, Taipei City-Taiwan
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 Goals:
Prepare to understand the differences in ideas expressed within 4 koma comics within the past 10 years. The comics from ten years ago are analyzed and used as the reference for recent works and as the foundation to compare future comics with.
 Methodology:
Hosted a 4 koma competition from November 2004 to January 2015. A total of 3256 comic works received and were grouped into 4 categories by contestants’ age: Primary School, Middle School, High School, and Adult Category. A theme analysis was conducted on these comic works.
 Results:
1. People believed that the most common cause of suicide were “Poor Grades and Academic Pressure”. 2. The most common method of suicide found within the comics is jumping off a building. 3. If given a chance to speak to those who wanted to suicide, people are most likely to offer words of encouragement and persuasion . 4. Most people believed that suicidal people can stop thinking about suicide “by themselves” through changing the way they think. 5. Primary School and High School students are more likely to believe suicidal behavior is induced by Poor Grades and Academic pressure; Middle school students are more likely to believe suicide induced by relationship problem. The adults are more inclined to place “other reasons” as the most common cause for suicide. 6. Primary School students are more inclined than other categories to believe the support of family will be more effective in preventing suicide;
 Conclusions:
Middle School and High School Students are more likely to think that the support of their friends can prevent suicide, while the majority of adults believe that the most effective way to prevent suicide is through a change in personal conviction and values.


(198) PO-198. Human values and socio-economic variables in relation to suicide. A longitudinal analysis of regional suicide rates in 11 European countries.

Day: 10 | Time: 13:30 | Room: Poster Hall

Topic: Culture, ethnicity and spiritual approaches. New paradigms in suicidology

Authors:Alexandre Reynders . KU Leuven - Odisee, Brussels - Belgium
- Toon Kuppens - Geert Molenberghs - Chantal Van Audenhove -

 Introduction:
Although suicide seems to be an individual act, studies have shown that suicide rates can vary substantially between and within countries (Korosec Jagodic, Agius, & Pregelj, 2012). In explaining these differences between suicide rates, the majority of studies are inspired by the social integration theory of Durkheim. Already in the late 1800's, Durkheim argued that modern societies are characterized by social disintegration and deregulation. This results in high levels of Individualism and anomie which caused suicide rates to increase (Durkheim, 1951). Social integration contains different dimensions such as economic and religious integration and social fragmentation. Until today, these dimensions are often operationalized in terms of unemployment rates, secularization, fertility rates, educational attainment, social capital, etc. Although many studies have found associations between these societal indices and regional or national suicide rates, only few studies have investigated the cultural values underlying Durkheims' theory (Lenzi, Colucci, & Minas, 2012) and none have done so in a longitudinal design. Schwarz defined human values as beliefs that refer to desirable goals beyond specific actions and situations and which serve, according to their relative importance, as standards for action (Schwarz, 2012). human values evolve to recognize, respond and cope with societal problems.
 Goals:
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Schwartz's value dimensions on suicide rates at a regional level by estimating a single growth model. This is the first longitudinal study of human values and suicide rates. Indicators of social integration were included in the analysis to determine the strength of the associations between suicide rates and Schwartz’ human value dimensions over and above known correlates of suicide rates. Furthermore, to forestall the bias caused by misclassified suicides, we decide to include the most important concurrent cause of death category 'self-harm of which the intent is undetermined' (UI) into the analysis (Reynders, Scheerder, & Van Audenhove, 2010).
 Methodology:
Method: The dependent variables were suicide rates and the rate of self-harm of which the intent was undetermined. The socio-economic variables were religiousness, unemployment, education, fertility, social contact and social capital. Data were collected from the European Social Survey and Eurostat. Data were gathered for 87 regions of 11 European countries and analyzed by means of descriptive statistics and correlations. and multilevel, longitudinal analysis for the period 2005-2010. Next, we estimated a single growth model using multilevel modeling (Singer & Willett, 2003) in which variables measured at T1 predicted the change in suicide from T1 to T2 and T3. In this multilevel model the suicide rates for T1 (2005-06) to T2 (2007-08) and T3 (2009-10) were nested within regions, and regions were nested within countries. The model included (1) a linear effect of time, which was coded with values 0, 1, and 2, (2) a quadratic effect of time, (3) a random intercept for region, that is, a region-specific deviation from the overall mean suicide rate, (4) a random slope for time, that is, a region-specific deviation from the change in suicide rate over time, (5) a random intercept for country, that is, a country-specific deviation from the overall suicide rate, to control for the non-independence of regions from the same country, and (6) the 2006 scores of all predictors. The latter estimate the effect of all predictors on T1 values for suicide. Crucially, however, we also added (7) the interactions between time and all predictors, testing whether the 2006 score on a particular predictor was related to the (linear) change in suicide from T1 to T2 and T3.
 Results:
Surprisingly, socio-economic variables had no robust effects in our longitudinal models, and this finding raises doubts about causal interpretations of previous cross-sectional analyses. While research has frequently found that unemployment rate is positively associated with regional suicide rates, this relation was not observed in our longitudinal study. In other words, despite the 2008 economic crisis, no effect of unemployment on regional suicide rates was found. Social contact and social capital neither predict suicide rates in any of the four models. In regions with higher proportions of low educated people, suicide rates tend to be higher among women, but this effect diminishes after including the Human Values into the model. Higher fertility rates predict only higher regional suicide rates among women. Although not consistently, this finding contradicts the assumption that familial integration in terms of fertility, is a protective factor of suicide on a regional level. Overall, we can conclude that socio-economic variables have no predictive effect on male suicide rates and only a limited and inconsistent effect on female suicide rates. This suggests that associations found by previous, mainly cross-sectional studies, should probably not be interpreted as causal relations. The human value dimension Autonomy vs. Embeddedness was the single consistent predictor of regional suicide rates. In Regions where people gave more priority to values reflecting autonomy, suicide rates were lower in the years following. For example, a change from the lowest to the highest regional level of Autonomy at T1 corresponds with an 11 percent lower suicide rate in T2. In other words, at the regional level Autonomy appears to be a protective factor for suicide. No other variable had a consistently significant effect on the change in suicide.
 Conclusions:
Limitations: we were restricted to those countries and variables for which data were available. Conclusions: Human values are associated with regional suicide rates after controlling for socio-economic variables. Autonomy as a value at a regional level seems to have a protective effect toward suicide. . What then could explain the protective effect of Autonomy values with respect to suicide rates in non-traditional or individualistic countries? Lenzi et al. (2012) argue that in modern societies, were people become increasingly free to choose their own identity and social roles, giving priority to values such as being adventurous, taking risks, develop abilities etc. increases the possibilities for people to become more socially integrated. Furthermore, the pursuit of personal goals and needs as an important value, is related to a more individualistic culture in which personal control or internal locus of control is more prevalent (Stocks, April, & Lynton, 2012). Research found that nations with higher levels of internal locus had lower suicide rates (Lester, Castromayor, & Içli, 1991). Thus, in contemporary Europe, people are assumed to form their own identity and take their own social position. Values that are in line with increasingly Individualistic countries, therefore have a positive influence on social regulation and integration in post-modern societies.
 References:
Allik, J., Realo, A. Psychological and cultural mechanisms of suicide. Trames. 1997; 1: 306-321. Durkheim, E. Suicide: A study in sociology. New York: Free Press. 1951 ESS Round 5: European Social Survey Round 5 Data (2010). Data file edition 3.1. (Publication. Retrieved 15/12/2014, from Norwegian Social Science Data Services, Norway – Data Archive and distributor of ESS data. Eurostat.com Regional statistics (Publication. Retrieved 15/12/2014, from European Commission: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/regions/data/database. 2014 Korosec Jagodic, H., Agius, M., Pregelj, M. Inter-regional variations in suicide rates. Psychiatria Danubina. 2012; 12: Suppl 1, 82-85. Lenzi, M., Colucci, E., Minas, H. Suicide, culture, and Society from a cross-national perspective. Cross-Cult Res. 2012; 46: 50-71. Lester, D. Individualism and suicide. Psychol Rep. 2005; 97: 576. Reynders, A., Scheerder, G., & Van Audenhove, C. (2010). The reliability of suicide rates: An analysis of railway suicides from two sources in fifteen European countries. J Affect Disorders. 2010; 131: 120-127. Schwartz, S. An overview of the Schwartz Theory of Basic Values. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2. http://dx.doi.org/10.9707/2307-0919.1116. 2012. Stocks, A., April, K., Lynton, N. Locus of control and subjective well-being – a cross-cultural study. Problems and Perspectives in Management. 2012;10: 17-25.


(238) PO-238. A systematic review of relationships between substance use and suicide in low- and middle-income countries

Day: 10 | Time: 13:30 | Room: Poster Hall

Topic: Culture, ethnicity and spiritual approaches. New paradigms in suicidology

Authors:Elsie Breet . Department of Psychology, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town - South Africa
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 Introduction:
People who abuse substances are at increased risk of engaging in suicidal ideation and behaviour (SIB). Epidemiological literature from high income countries demonstrates that substance abuse correlates with suicidal behaviour, less is known about the psychosocial context in which substance abuse is associated with fatal and non-fatal self-injurious behaviour in low and middle income countries (LMICs).
 Methodology:
Electronic databases were searched in February 2016. PubMed, CINAHL, Web of science, DARE, PsychINFO, and article reference lists were searched for eligible studies. Epidemiological studies reporting on the association between acute and chronic alcohol or drug use and SIB were retrieved.
 Results:
We identified 1600 articles published between 2006 and 2016, of which 104 met our inclusion criteria. Acute or chronic substance use among people who engage in SIB is a significant problem in LMICs. Several psychosocial factors mediated the association between acute or chronic substance use and SIB.
 Conclusions:
The current evidence suggests that prevention and intervention initiatives in LMICs should consider the psychosocial context in which acute or chronic alcohol and drug use is associated with SIB. The findings from this review are limited by study design and quality; therefore more sophisticated studies with larger samples are needed.


(267) PO-267. Making suicide nonsensical. The way in which the concepts of potential /suicidal/ patient and disability do it.

Day: 10 | Time: 13:30 | Room: Poster Hall

Topic: Culture, ethnicity and spiritual approaches. New paradigms in suicidology

Authors:Tamas Ervin Barnabas . Self-employed, mentally disabled self-advocate, Budapest-Hungary
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 Introduction:
The concepts of potential patient and disability, the role of theory in suicide research, a new dimension in mental health promotion training and education."
 Goals:
This presentation highlights the possibilities in which these concepts are utilizable in suicide pre/inter/vention, post/inter/vention and mental health promotion training for professional groups and their interdisciplinary partners that is a powerful tool towards the end of making suicide nonsensical and the improvement of suicidal consumers' quality of life.
 Methodology:
Analytical, comparative.
 Results:
How do the pros and cons of the issues of euthanasia effect the 21st century anti-suicide crusades and action takings? This is a quintessential question of suicidology, concerning the contemporary enterprises of euthanasiology. The scholars of suicidology and euthanasiology are challenged to make suicide nonsensical and euthanasia sensical in an updated, renewed fashion. In 2009, I invented the concepts of potential patient and disability. This approximately six minute long briefing-presentation demonstrates how the concepts of potential /suicidal/ patient and disability are useable to overcome the gap between the healthy, able professional groups and the unfit, disabled, potentially healthy suicidal consumers. This presentation helps to discern unhealthy, not well-being, disabled states of mind as part of human condition, embedded in social stratums and to describe suicidal phenomenons in extra details and to understand the role of theory in suicide research better.
 Conclusions:
A train of thought in regard to the kew aspects of a self-image with potential suicidal illness and/or disability and the ways in which they facilitate a new dimension in education of scholars of suicidology and euthanasiology.


(277) PO-277. Psychiatric consultation for Suicide attempts in migrants in the Emergency Room: Comparison with the native population. Data from a 7-years period.

Day: 10 | Time: 13:30 | Room: Poster Hall

Topic: Culture, ethnicity and spiritual approaches. New paradigms in suicidology

Authors:Sarah Di Marco . Department of Translational Medicine - University of Eastern Piedmont , Novara-Italy
- Eleonora Gambaro - Claudia Delicato - Eleonora Gattoni - Isabella Coppola - Elisa Di Tullio - Camilla Vecchi - Fabrizio Bert - Luigi Mario Castello - Patrizia Zeppegno -

 Introduction:
Immigration is a very important issue in Europe, also as far as health policies are concerned. Because of its position, Italy became a disembarkation country for migrants sailing from North Africa across the Mediterranean Sea, as well as a destination for people from Eastern Europe. At the end of year 2014, 5 million out of the 60.8 million inhabitants in Italy (8.2%) had a foreign citizenship. Non-EU foreigners holding a residence permit in Italy on 1st January 2015 were 3,929,916, with the following being the most represented Countries of origin: Morocco, Albania, China , Ukraine and Philippines. Istat data report an approximately 63% increase of the migrant population in Italy from 2008 to 2015 (from 3 millions to 4.9 millions). This increase was almost 50% in Piedmont (from 284.191 in 2008 to 425.523 in 2014) and a similar trend was observed in the province of Novara (from 25.088 = 6.9% of the total population in 2008 to 37.453=10.1% in 2014). The largest migrant communities were the Moroccan, Albanian, Romanian and Ukrainian ones.
 Goals:
Describing the features of migrants referring to Emergency Room (ER) psychiatric consultation after a suicide attempt and assessing the possible differences in socio-demographic, clinical and treatment variables between migrants and natives as far as suicidal behaviors are concerned.
 Methodology:
We recruited consecutive patients referring to the ER of the Maggiore della Carità Hospital from 1st March 2008 and 31st March 2015. Socio-demographic, clinical and consultation features were recorded and compared in natives and migrants.
 Results:
Preliminary data show that migrants were more frequently referred to ER psychiatric consultation for self-injury behaviours compared to natives. Suicide attempts were more frequent in the migrant group than in the native one. Further Analyses are still ongoing.
 Conclusions:
Implications will be discussed.
 References:
1. Istituto nazionale di statistica (2015). Istat.it. http://www.istat.it/it/immigrati (2015). 2. Gramaglia C, Gambaro E, Rossi A, Toso A, Feggi A, Cattaneo CI, Castignoli G, Mainini P, Tarricone I, Torre E, Zeppegno P. Migrants' Pathways to Outpatient Mental Health: Are there Differences with the Italian Population? J Immigr Minor Health. 2015; 1-8. 3. Gaddini A, Franco F, Biscaglia L, Di Lallo D. An urban Italian study on emergency room utilisation by migrants suffering from mental disorders in Rome, 2000-2004. Eur.Psych 2008; 23(2): 118-124. 4. Zeppegno P, Gramaglia C, Castello LM, Bert F, Gualano, MR, Ressico F, Coppola I, Avanzi GC, Siliquini R, Torre E. Suicide attempts and emergency room psychiatric consultation. Bio Med Centr 2015;15:13.


(365) PO-365. Patients attending the psychiatric emergency room for a reason of suicide attempt compared to those attending with no suicidal behaviour: Are there any differences regarding the follow-up? A case-control study

Day: 09 | Time: 10:30 | Room: Poster Hall

Topic: Culture, ethnicity and spiritual approaches. New paradigms in suicidology

Authors:Almudena Portilla Fernández . Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra, Pamplona-Spain
- Patricia Macaya Aranguren - Lucía Janda Galán - Rebeca Elorza Pardo - Laura Montes Reula - José Javier López Goñi -

 Introduction:
Suicidal behavior is one of the most significant issues we have in Mental Health. Lots of studies in this area have been developed, aiming to increase our knowledge on it and try to offer an effective prevention, intervention and postvention of suicide.
 Goals:
This is a multicenter case-control study carried out by mental health professionals in Navarra. The aim of this study is to track patients after they attend the Emergency Room seeking for urgent psychiatric attention, comparing the paths they follow through the mental health net after committing a suicide attempt to those attending the psychiatric ER because of any other reason
 Methodology:
Data of all patients attending psychiatric ER were collected during 10 months (from January to October 2015). Patients were divided into two groups: the cases were those attending because of having committed suicide attempt; and the controls were those attending because of any other psychiatric reason. We compared the ways that cases and controls had followed after the urgent attention, during 6 months.
 Results:
A sample of 295 patients was obtained with a 6-month follow-up, after requesting for urgent psychiatric attendance in the ER. It was observed that in the urgent attention, a pharmacological adjustment was made more often for the controls group than for the cases (99 controls vs 61 cases underwent a treatment modification in the ER). The control group had a higher number of consultations with psychiatrist than the group of cases during the 6 months. Same number of cases and controls required hospitalization in the psychiatry service after the ER attention. All this differences showed statistical significance.
 References:
-Suicidios. Manual de prevención, intervención y postvención de la conducta suicida. Andoni Anseán -Self-impalement after thoracic stab wound. An unusual method of suicide in psychotic symptomatology. Reuhl J, Schuster R, Weiler G. Arch Kriminol. 2000 May-Jun;205(5-6):152-61. - Geoffroy MC, Turecki G. The developmental course of suicidal ideation in first-episode psychosis. Lancet Psychiatry. 2016 Mar 2


(392) PO-392. The peer specialist: Possibilities for the recovery of suicidal care consumers

Day: 10 | Time: 13:30 | Room: Poster Hall

Topic: Culture, ethnicity and spiritual approaches. New paradigms in suicidology

Authors:Diana Van Bergen . Groningen University, Groningen, the Netherlands
- Annemiek Huisman -

 Introduction:
Following the initiative of care consumers who felt that their voice regarding the care they received was not heard in mental health services, a recovery-focused approach to mental health problems emerged, advocating for a person-centered, integrated mental healthcare delivery model. The emergence and availability of peer specialists with a history of suicidality (suicide attempts and/or suicidal ideation) who work with suicidal care consumers is a more recent phenomenon in this context. The Suicide Attempt Survivor Movement was launched within the American Association of Suicidology in 2014, aimed at the improvement of care provided to suicidal care consumers and at helping fellow care consumers with their recovery from suicidality.
 Goals:
We will answer the following question: What unique value and potential risks for the recovery process of suicidal care consumers can be derived from the literature about the integration of peer specialists with a history of suicidality?
 Methodology:
1. A systematic literature search of the role of peer specialists with a history of suicidality in mental health care; 2. An outline of the theoretically plausible value of peer specialists with a history of suicidality, based on general literature of peer specialists in mental health care.
 Results:
The unique contribution of peer specialists in suicide prevention is expected to emerge as a result of their shared experiences with suicidality and shared adversities in life, recognition of stigma, and shared challenges of communicating with healthcare staff and family or friends about suicidality. Due to their own recovery process, peer specialists can be a role model for suicidal care consumers.
 Conclusions:
The literature suggests that peer specialists have the potential to fulfill a groundbreaking role for suicide prevention, providing support to suicidal peers, inspiring empowerment and recovery, and breaking the taboo.


(419) PO-419. Could some common mental diseases have evolved to prevent suicide? - a theoretical enquiry

Day: 09 | Time: 10:30 | Room: Poster Hall

Topic: Culture, ethnicity and spiritual approaches. New paradigms in suicidology

Authors:Cas Soper . University of Gloucestershire, Gloucestershire
-

 Introduction:
Multiple lines of evidence converge to suggest that depression, generalised anxiety, addictions and many other common metal ‘disorders’ (‘CMDs’) may have evolved in the human species to avert suicide. Several clinicians and researchers (eg, Hundert, 1992) have commented on the anti-suicide properties of CMDs: depression, for example, has been described as a loss of vitality that impairs the individual’s ability to act out on suicidal thoughts, while psychotic delusions may function to buffer the individual from a suicidogenic reality.
 Methodology:
The methodology is a theoretical enquiry, based on formal evolutionary theory and assessing CMDs for evidence of purposeful biological design (Williams 1966).

 Results:
The necessity for some adaptive countermeasures to have evolved to suppress suicide is supported by an evolutionary account of suicide’s likely origins as a by-product of human cognition combined with the experience of emotional pain. Reactive defences, triggered by the onset of emotional pain among adolescents and adults, would be expected to reduce suicide risk while allowing the individual to function in a cognitively attenuated capacity. A set of institutional suicide prevention interventions, such as restraint and medication, may point to a corresponding suite of analogous and often co-occurring instinctive mechanisms (depression, addiction etc) that mobilise to deal with the same problem in nature.

 Conclusions:
It is concluded that a CMDs may operate as crisis defences as part of a wider system of protections against suicide. A general therapeutic implication is noted, alongside the potential for a new, comprehensive theoretical framework in psychology and psychopathology based on suicide avoidance.

 References:
HUNDERT, E. M. 1992. The brain’s capacity to form delusions as an evolutionary strategy for survival. In: SPITZER, M., UEHLEIN, F., SCHWARTZ, M. A. & MUNDT, C. (eds.) Phenomenology, Language & Schizophrenia. New York: Springer.

WILLIAMS, G. 1966. Adaptation and Natural Selection: A Critique of some Current Evolutionary Thought. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
TOOBY, J. & COSMIDES, L. 2005. Conceptual foundations of evolutionary psychology. In: BUSS, D. M. (ed.) The handbook of evolutionary psychology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.